The Black Death

The Black Death was a deadly disease that claimed numerous lives. In Europe for the first time in October 1347.

Twelve ships brought it to Europe from the Black Sea.

It was too late when the Sicilian authorities ordered the fleet of death ships to depart the harbor.

Over the next five years, a plague almost wiped out one-third of Europe’s population and killed more than 20 million people.

The plague is among the most lethal illnesses and is only second to smallpox. It is a disease transmitted by rodents and fleas but may also spread rapidly amongst intimate contacts.

The 14th century witnessed the worst scourge in recorded history. People in medieval times referred to it as the “Great Pestilence” or “Great Plague.” Contemporary authors called it the “Great Mortality.”

Before the Great Plague struck Europe in the 1340, tales began circulating about it. It initially appeared in China before spreading to India, Persia, Syria, and Egypt.

It’s thought that the disease originated in Asia about 2000 years ago. People believe it was spread by trading ships, but a recent study indicates it may have been in Europe as early as 3000 BCE.

Port cities were the first to receive the plague in Europe. Following trade routes, it traveled by water and land, and Bubonic plague was the most prevalent.

The Black Plague was an exceptionally infectious illness that rapidly spread amongst individuals. Even if someone were in good health in the morning, they might still perish at night. Some cities locked down and shuttered their gates, preventing anybody from entering or leaving.

The Black Death initially reached Messina. Next, it moved to Marseilles, France, and Tunis, North Africa. It then traveled to Rome and Florence. Numerous trade routes led to these locations, which attracted many people. The Black Death reached Paris, Lyon, and London around the middle of the year 1348.

Some of the most severely affected locations were hilly and inaccessible locales, such as Snowdonia in Wales and Mangonia, a small town north of Florence. It is hard to explain why the Black Death did not affect Milan and Douai in Flanders, and they had little difficulty with it for whatever reason.

The Black Death caused a large number of deaths. The authorities had no idea what to do with the dead, so they just heaped them into carts and left them there. They advised individuals to remain at home and avoid contact with others since they could become ill.

There were not enough conventional gravesites for the deceased. Therefore, additional plague cemeteries were created.

Some believe the Black Death spread at a daily rate of at least one mile, and other tales claim that it went up to 8 kilometers daily. It is believed to have spread 30 to 100 times quicker than bubonic epidemics of the twentieth century.

People once believed the Black Death to be a person and would depict him as the Grim Reaper coming to take healthy individuals.

Rats and the Plague during the Black Death

A ship from Asia arrived in the autumn of 1347. Additionally, there were humans and rats on board, and the rodents carried the Black Death and the bubonic plague with them.

There were two categories of rats responsible for the bubonic plague: those who were immune to the disease and those that were susceptible. When the second population dies, the fleas migrate to other animals and humans, which is harmful to health.

Rats carry fleas that infect humans. The black rat was the initial vector of the fleas believed to have caused the Black Death. Yersinia pestis is the name of the bacteria responsible for the Black Death. Cats and dogs are also susceptible to carrying the plague.

Signs of the Great Plague

The epidemic infected all individuals. It did not matter if you were wealthy or poor, young or old, male or female. The impact of the Black Death on civilization was devastating.

The Black Death slaughtered many knights, women, and merchants and killed several individuals at convents, friaries, and monasteries. Due to this catastrophe, artisans have lost their employment.

The plague had three unique strains, each resulting in a distinct set of symptoms.

The bubonic plague was the first. This illness has painful swellings as one of its symptoms. The neck, armpits, and groin were covered with buboes and exuded pus and/or blood. The symptoms caused skin and tissue damage until you were covered in black spots.

In around a week, the majority of plague victims perished. 30-75 percent of individuals infected would perish from this.

The pneumonic plague was a form of airborne illness. Before spreading to other parts of the body, it targeted the lungs. This was the reason why the Black Death was so devastating.

If you received the septicemic plague, you ultimately became ill due to your blood. The septicaemic plague produced severe bleeding throughout the body, nearly invariably fatal. In medieval times, this was the most lethal kind of plague.

Physicians and Medieval Medicine

Doctors donned a mask and clothing to shield themselves from the plague in the past. The garment had varied fragrances and resembled a bird.

The eye holes on the mask were there. Straps secured a form of respirator, the beak in front of the doctor’s nose.

Doctors believed they could eliminate unpleasant odors, and they thought this would protect against the sickness. In addition, they believed herbs might eradicate the stench of evil and protect individuals from contracting the plague.

A wooden cane was utilized to indicate issues and evaluate patients without disturbing them. A cane was also used to keep others at bay and to remove plague sufferers’ garments without having to touch them.

During the plague, significant advancements in the history of medicine and health occurred. Doctors discovered how to do surgery, how the circulatory system works, and how to make public areas safer from illness.

People believed that strange treatments might heal them. The following are some:

God sent the plague as a punishment for those who had committed evil. The plague will not befall you if you perform excellent deeds.

Mix tree resin, white lily roots, and human feces, then apply the mixture to the skin.

Not avoiding bathing is prudent. You can choose bathing with vinegar and rosewater or if you like, your urine.

Quarantine for forty days (quarantine is derived from the Latin word for forty).

Place a live hen next to the sores to trap the plague. To eliminate the illness, consume two cups of your pee twice a day.

Crush the gemstone to make emerald tea. Drink it in wine.

Consume a hot beverage composed of eggshells, flowers, and sentimentality. Perform it daily.

Numerous citizens departed the city, and the sickness was unavoidable for them. Desperate to save themselves, people abandoned their ailing relatives in the town.

This sickness also impacted sheep. Numerous of them perished, and it produced a wool scarcity across Europe.


According to the most credible estimates, at least 25 million people perished throughout Europe between 1347 and 1352. This constitutes almost 40% of the population (some estimates say 60 percent ).

Died were fifty percent of the inhabitants of Paris. The population of Florence decreased from 120,000 to 50,000 in Italy. It is difficult to find a comparable catastrophe in recorded history as the plague. Following the epidemic, it took Europe’s population 150 years to recover.

Never-ending plague. Years later, it returned. People at the port city of Ragusa, which was under Venetian authority, were able to halt its spread.

The sailors were isolated until it was determined that they did not have the sickness. To prevent the spread of the disease, they also imposed social separation by keeping individuals apart. The men were quarantined aboard their ships for thirty days, which was eventually extended to forty days.

The system of serfdom fell due to the epidemic. Those who still had employment could charge more since fewer workers were available. There was plenty of lands, food, and cash.

Women have acquired property rights. In some regions of England, widows may maintain their land until they remarried or remarried and still retain the property.

People descended from those who survived the epidemic were more likely to reach their 50s and beyond. This was due to the fact that their forebears possessed a genetic edge that allowed them to escape the pandemic.

In 1665, London experienced the Great Plague, which was the final great epidemic affecting England. The plague faded from Spain and Germany in the 17th century. In 1720 and 1721, Marseilles, France, saw the last big plague pandemic.

Modern sanitation and public-health policies have drastically decreased the number of individuals contracting the disease, yet it still exists WHO estimates that between 1,000 and 3,000 new Black Death instances occur annually, even though antibiotics can be used to eradicate the disease (World Health Organization).

  1. We’re a group of volunteers and tarting a rand new scheme in our community. Your web site provided us with…

  2. I very delighted to find this internet site on bing, just what I was searching for as well saved to…


Leave a Comment