First Dynasty of Egypt

The First Dynasty of Egypt refers to the first line of rulers to rule over an united Egypt. Soon after Upper and Lower Egypt were united, perhaps by Narmer, the Early Dynastic Period began, with its capital at Thinis. Scholars disagree on when this era began and ended according to Egyptian chronology. The beginning of this period, which is classified as the early Bronze Age, is widely placed anywhere between the 34th and 30th centuries BC. 2013 research using radiocarbon dating put the start of the First Dynasty (with the accession of Hor-Aha) at around 3100 BCE.

About of First Dynasty of Egypt

All of the monarchs of First Dynasty of Egypt (3150–2890 BCE) pursued the same goals: boosting commerce, expanding the kingdom via military conquests, working on construction projects (such as monuments, tombs, and temples), and establishing centralised government over the nation. They held power in Memphis and the city of Thinis, which is close to Abydos.

Manetho’s chronology places Menes, who is now known to be associated with the pharaoh who was formerly believed to be his successor, Narmer, as the first monarch. At Thinis, Narmer first placed the districts of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt under centralised authority. Later, he built a palace at Memphis and moved the capital there.

According to historian Margaret Bunson, Menes’ first dynasty in Memphis was notable for its tremendous cultural achievements. He established, or reinforced, the earlier forms of administrative and religious traditions that would later become distinctive features of Egypt’s history in order to establish his claims to the throne (via marriage).

Education of First dynasty of Egypt

Linear measures, arithmetic, and astronomy were all used, and there was papyrus, writing, and a calendar. The country reached unprecedented heights as a result of a census, tax assessments, the redrawing of boundaries following the regular flooding of the Nile, and the invention of new astronomical equipment.

Kings and Queens of First Dynasty of Egypt

Neithhotep, the queen of Narmer, may have become Egypt’s first female emperor when he passed away. All of the kings who succeeded Narmer upheld his principles. The most powerful of these was Den (about 2990 BCE), who is the first king to be shown wearing the crowns of both Upper and Lower Egypt, demonstrating his supremacy over the whole area.

Merneith, Den‘s mother, may have served as his regent when he was a child or may have controlled Egypt earlier under Neithhotep. During the First Dynasty of Egypt waged military wars against Nubia, Libya, and Sinai, which increased its riches and territory. Borderlands that were not well-defended were annexed.

Egypt under the pharaohs transitioned from a predominately agrarian society to one that was becoming more and more urbanised.

The First Dynasty of Egypt’s monarchs were, for the most part, excellent leaders. It is only known that Anedjib and Semerkhet had turbulent kingships. Egypt under the pharaohs transitioned from a predominately agrarian society to one that was becoming more and more urbanised. However, it appears that the Egyptians took care to avoid the drawbacks of urbanisation, such as overcrowding and excessive use of land and water resources, that characterised Mesopotamian towns.

Based on Manetho’s chronology, the following list of First Dynasty of Egypt kings includes Narmer (also known as Menes, c. 3150 BCE), who united Upper and Lower Egypt and established a central government at Thinis, which may have been his hometown even though he is also linked to Hierakonpolis. The central government later relocated to Abydos and then Memphis. To bolster his power and form a partnership with Naqada’s royal family, he wed the princess Neithhotep. Large-scale construction projects were started as well as the development of religious practises. Additionally, Narmer probably oversaw military campaigns to subdue uprisings in Lower Egypt and extend the realm into Canaan and Nubia. It’s conceivable that Neithhotep continued to rule on her own after he passed away. If so, she would be among the earliest female rulers in history, predating early regents like Sammu-Ramat of Assyria. She would also be the first female ruler of Egypt.

Though he has been linked to Menes/Narmer himself, Hor-Aha (c. 3100–3050 BCE; Greek name: Athotis) was most likely the child of Narmer and Neithhotep.

Djer (c. 3050 – 3000 BCE; Greek name: Uenephes)

Djet (c. 3000 – 2990 BCE; Greek name: Usaphais)

Merneith (c. 2990 BCE)

Despite the fact that Manetho does not include her in his chronology, items discovered in her tomb at Abydos show she was Egypt’s queen.

The son of Djet and Merneith, Den (c. 2990–2940 BCE; Greek name: Kenkenes) was born.

During his rule, the Cult of Apis (also known as Hapi), the bull-deity who served as a mediator between humanity and the gods, was established. He is regarded as the First Dynasty of Egypt greatest ruler.

Anedjib (c. 2940 – 2930 BCE; Greek name: Miebidos)

Semerkhet (c. 2930 – 2920 BCE; Greek name: Semempses)

Several objects have Anedjib’s name.

The final king of the First Dynasty of Egypt was Qa’a (c. 2920–2890 BCE; Greek name: Beieneches).

Horus Bird and Sneferka are two more.

They were either vanquished or atoned for, or both, according to Hotepsekhemwy, who later established the Second Dynasty.

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